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Definitions:

- Combination Unit: An interconnected assembly of drenching and flushing
equipment that is supplied by a single flushing fluid source.
- Emergency (Deluge) Shower: A device to deliver flushing fluid that utilizes a
valve which remains open during use to enable the user to have water
cascading over the entire body while the hands are free.
- Eye/Face Wash: A device used to provide fluid to irrigate and flush both the
face and the eyes.
- Eyewash: A device used to provide tepid fluid to irrigate and flush both eyes
simultaneously at a velocity low enough not to be injurious to the user.
- Hand-Held Drench Hose: A flexible hose connected to a water supply that is
used to provide fluid to irrigate eyes, face and body area.
- Hazardous Material: Any  substance or compound that has the capability of
producing adverse effects on the health and safety of humans.
- Personal Eyewash: A supplementary eyewash that supports plumbed or selfcontained eyewash equipment by delivering immediate flushing for less than 15 minutes.
- Plumbed Eyewash: An eyewash unit permanently connected to a source of
potable water.
- Tepid: Moderately warm, lukewarm 16-38deg.C (60-100 deg. F)


Plumbed and self-contained emergency showers:

− Plumbed and self-contained emergency showers must supply at least 75.7 litres per minute (20 gallon per minute) of flushing fluid at a velocity low enough to be non-injurious to the user.
− At least a fifteen minute supply of flushing fluid must be available.
− The flushing fluid supply valve must stay open without the use of the operator's hands.
− The operation valve (or lever, handle) should not be more than 173.3cm (69  
   inches) in height.
− Shower head height must be between 208.3-243.8cm (82-96 in) from the floor.
− Protection from freezing or freeze protected equipment is required where the
possibility of freezing exists.
− Shower enclosures (if used) require at least a 86.4 cm (34 in) diameter
unobstructed area to provide adequate space for the user.


Plumbed and self-contained eyewash:

− Plumbed and self-contained eyewash units must supply at least 1.5 litres/minute (0.4 gpm) of flushing fluid and at a velocity low enough to be non-injurious to the user.
− At least a fifteen minute supply of flushing fluid must be available.
− Eyewash units must supply flushing fluid to both eyes simultaneously.
− The flushing fluid supply valve must stay open without the use of the operator's hands.
− Nozzles must be protected from airborne contaminants. Nozzle protective
device removal must be automatic (not require a separate motion by the user)
when the unit is turned on.
− Eyewash units must be placed between 83.8-114.5 cm (33-45 in) from the
user's standing surface and at least 15.3 cm (6 in) from the nearest wall or
other obstruction.

Eye/Face wash equipment:

− Plumbed and self-contained eye/face wash units must supply at least 11.4 litres (3.0 gpm) of flushing fluid and at a velocity low enough to be non-injurious to the user.
− At least a fifteen minute supply of flushing fluid must be available.
− Eye/Face wash units must supply flushing fluid to both eyes simultaneously.
− The flushing fluid supply valve must stay open without the use of the operator's hands.
− Nozzles must be protected from airborne contaminants. Nozzle protective
device removal must be automatic (not require a separate motion by the user)
when the unit is turned on.
− Eyewash units must be placed between 83.8 cm (33 in) and 114.3 cm (45 in) from the user's standing surface and at least 15.3 cm (6 in) from the nearest.


Hand-held drench hoses:


− Hand-held drench hoses provide support for emergency shower and eyewash units but they are not intended to replace them.
− A drench hose may be considered an eyewash or eye/face wash if the device meets the performance requirements as listed in the ANSI Standard


Combination Units:
Combination units such as an eyewash and shower combination are ideal in many situations. Installation and performance requirements for combination units are as presented for the individual components.


6  Personal eyewash equipment:
− Personal eyewash equipment, such as bottles and small portable units, are only to be used in addition to plumbed or self-contained eyewash stations.
  Note: The personal eyewash equipment do not meet the ANSI criteria of
plumbed or self-contained eyewash equipment.
− Operator instructions must be maintained on personal eyewash equipment.
− Flushing solutions must be changed out once per week when it is used without a preservative. An expiration date must be maintained according to the
manufacturer's specifications on equipment containing flushing solutions or
preservatives.


Use:
Immediate and proper use of emergency eyewash and safety showers is essential to minimizing injury upon injurious hazardous material contact. The following guidelines should aid in minimizing injury due to contact with hazardous materials:
− Flush eyes and/or skin for at least 15 minutes. Never use home-made
neutralizing solutions to flush chemicals from the body.
− Immediately remove contaminated clothing. Do this while under the shower
when cross contamination has occurred. Have someone assist with clothing
removal when possible.

− Hold eyelids open with fingers so flushing fluid can fully irrigate the eyes.
Note: People may not always be able to flush their eyes on their own because of intense pain. Nearby helpers should be prepared to assist with holding the
eyelids open. Other helpers may need to assist with keeping the person under the flushing fluid for at least 15 minutes.
−  Seek medical attention after flushing the areas of contact for at least 15
minutes.
− Notify supervisor as soon as the emergency has subsided.


− An assistant may use a fire blanket or uncontaminated article of clothing as a shield to provide privacy for someone who needs to remove their clothes while under an emergency shower, and for body coverage while seeking medical attention.

Flushing and Inspection:

- Emergency eyewash station, emergency shower, combination units in
laboratories should be activated weekly to ensure flushing fluid is available as well as clear the supply line of sediments and minimize microbial
contamination caused by “still” or sitting water. Flush for at least three
minutes. Inspect eyewash and eye/face wash stations while flushing to make
sure that water rises to approximately equal heights, and that fluid flow is
sufficient to flush both eyes simultaneously while at a velocity low enough to
be non-injurious to the user.
- Water in self-contained eyewash and eye/face wash stations must be replaced with fresh potable water regularly. Follow the manufacturer's
recommendations for functionality tests and solution replacement when a
preserved solution is used in these units.
- Each personal eyewash station/unit must be reviewed regularly to make sure components are in place, the station/unit is readily accessible, and that flushing solution has not passed its expiration date. Also verify that bottles with seals/tamper indicators are sealed, replacing those that are not


9. Repairs
- Whenever an eyewash station is non-functional, a portable eyewash station or equivalent must be available if work with injurious hazardous materials
cannot be delayed.
- The area/lab supervisor is responsible for ensuring that eyewash and safety
shower equipment not passing inspection is repaired in a priority manner.
When emergency eyewash and safety shower equipment is non-functional,
it must be clearly tagged/signed as being out-of-service. Anyone removing
emergency eyewash and safety shower equipment from service must
notify the Area/Faculty’s Health & Safety Officer and the affected department beforehand.